GS7™ Next Generation in BioSensors
Graphene Sensors, heralded as the Super Material of the 21st Century
GS7™ Graphene Sensor heralded as the Super Material of the 21st Century. It has moved from the ground-breaking research stage to the open marketplace in less than five years. Numerous applications for this carbon-based material have been developed and used in a wide-range of industries including Medical Care; Cancer Treatment; Automotive; Electronics; and Energy storage. Researchers continue to make significant advancements in developing even more life-changing applications.
The latest advances, and perhaps those with the most significance, are finding roles in the fields of medicine, including in drug delivery, biological sensing and imaging, antibacterial materials, and tissue engineering. In Europe, where the EU is funding a 10 year, 1.35 billion euro coordination action on graphene, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has already advanced and written regulations for the use of nano-materials including graphene-based products. Likewise, the FDA is drafting regulations supporting the development of nano-materials.
Graphene derivatives generated by modifying the surface oxygen functional groups of graphene oxide have been widely investigated in recent years. Graphene derivatives possess excellent aqueous solubility and biocompatibility similar to graphene oxide, which are important in their biomedical application. Research progress on the use of graphene derivatives in biological imaging, drug carriers and photodynamic therapy of cancer are also ready to be presented. Future efforts to improve their performance in cancer therapy are also proposed, such as lowering the toxic effects introduced by chemicals used in the preparation of the graphene derivatives, expanding the drug to include genes and proteins, and coupling photodynamic therapy with imaging.
Top Five Industries for the GS7™ Graphene Sensor:
- Life Sciences – Medical Devices & Cancer Treatment
- Chemical & BioSensors
- Electronics & Imaging
- Smart Phones & Smart Pads
- Desalinization Membranes
Graphene Tech News
An ultrasensitive biosensor made from the wonder material graphene has been used to detect molecules that indicate an increased risk of developing cancer. <br><br> The biosensor has been shown to be more than five times more sensitive than bioassay tests currently in use, and was able to provide results in a matter of minutes, opening up the possibility of a rapid, point-of-care diagnostic tool for patients. The biosensor has been presented today, 19 September, in IOP Publishing's journal 2D Materials. <br><br> To develop a viable biosensor, the researchers, from the University of Swansea, had to create patterned graphene devices using a large substrate area, which was not possible using the traditional exfoliation technique where layers of graphene are stripped from graphite. <br><br> Instead, they grew graphene onto a silicon carbide substrate under extremely high temperatures and low pressure to form the basis of the biosensor. The researchers then patterned graphene devices, using semiconductor processing techniques, before attaching a number of bioreceptor molecules to the graphene devices. These receptors were able to bind to, or target, a specific molecule present in blood, saliva or urine. <br><br> The molecule, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), is produced when DNA is damaged and, in elevated levels, has been linked to an increased risk of developing several cancers. However, 8-OHdG is typically present at very low concentrations in urine, so is very difficult to detect using conventional detection assays, known as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). <br><br> In their study, the researchers used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to confirm that the bioreceptor molecules had attached to the graphene biosensor once fabricated, and then exposed the biosensor to a range of concentrations of 8-OHdG. <br><br> When 8-OHdG attached to the bioreceptor molecules on the sensor, there was a notable difference in the graphene channel resistance, which the researchers were able to record. <br><br> Results showed that the graphene sensor was capable of detecting 8-OHdG concentrations as low as 0.1 ng mL-1, which is almost five times more sensitive compared with ELISAs. The graphene biosensor was also considerably faster at detecting the target molecules, completing the analysis in a matter of minutes. <br><br> Moving forward, the researchers highlight the potential of the biosensor to diagnose and monitor a whole range of diseases, since it is quite simple to substitute the specific receptor molecules on the graphene surface. <br><br> Co-author of the study Dr Owen Guy said: "Graphene has superb electronic transport properties and has an intrinsically high surface-to-volume ratio, which make it an ideal material for fabricating biosensors. <br><br> "Now that we've created the first proof-of-concept biosensor using epitaxial graphene, we will look to investigate a range of different biomarkers associated with different diseases and conditions, as well as detecting a number of different biomarkers on the same chip."Continue reading >>>
A new technology announced by Graphene Sensors Inc., can selectively search and destroy cancerous prostate cells and destroy them with a flash of red light combining biotechnology and advanced graphene technologies to provide ground-breaking new medical technology. <br><br> Reaching this level of innovation requires massive mastery of several fields of science, an effort with massive commercial applications. This is about finding the Holy Grail of cancer therapy: destroying cancer cells without difficult surgery that may or may not eliminate all the cancerous cells, or death defying chemotherapy. For many years now, researchers have been looking at ways to use graphene in cancer therapy by providing a focused way to eliminate cancer cells. <br><br> The new technology is rooted in a rudimentary principle that was discovered 100,000 years ago with the discovery of fire: fire burns - and further experimented by every toddler ever since. Next it is draws on immunology, perhaps one of most misunderstood facet of medicine, by using antibodies that are specific to cancer cells. These antibodies bind to the walls of cancer cells but are rejected by healthy cells. Antibodies are the business end of the immune system that binds to microbes and foreign substances. In carcinogenesis the immune system is unable to produce them to destroy cancer cells. But what if we could arm antibodies with heat guns? Living cells are sensitive to high temperature - fire burns. <br><br> The researchers then used the antibodies to coat minuscule amounts of graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms, thus forming a bio conjugate or a biological computer chip. These graphene chips were fabricated for their ability to bind to the non-business end of the antibodies so that when they encounter cancer cells they can bind to their cell walls. This required finding a way to detoxify graphene, a unique process that was developed by Grafoid - graphene oxide is normally toxic to living cells. <br><br> This is when things get nasty for cancer cells: when graphene is exposed to near infrared wavelength, it turns it instantly turns it into heat. Near infrared is harmless red light and can't be felt normally: TV remotes use near infrared waves. Near infrared can also penetrate tissues, hence it can reach tumours that are coated with the antibody-graphene bio conjugate. Again, we know that fire burns. In this case it only burns the cancerous cells. <br><br> According to Calevia's co-founder Dr. Claude Vezeau who serves as President and CEO, further research is needed to calibrate the heat exposure to optimize the tumour removal treatment. In parallel, further research will also add therapies for example breast, kidney, bladder, and bladder cancers. So far these findings have been demonstrated on animal trials. Clinical trials on human subjects are planned within a 2-year horizon. <br><br> If these findings can be proven to cure cancer in humans, Calevia might offer us as much a quantum leap in medicine as when Sir Alexander Fleming and co-workers developed the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum in 1928. Fleming took medicine to a completely new level and triggered the pharmaceutical industry as we know it today.Continue reading >>>
Graphene, heralded as the Super Material of the 21st Century, has quickly moved from the ground-breaking research stage to the marketplace in less than a decade. Numerous applications for the carbon-based material have been developed for use in a wide-range of industries including automotive, electronics, and energy storage. Researchers continue to make significant advancements in developing even more life-changing applications. <br><br> The latest advancements, and perhaps those with the most significance, are finding a role in the field of medicine, including in drug delivery, biological sensing and imaging, antibacterial materials, and tissue engineering. In Europe, where the EU is funding a 10-year, 1.35 billion euro coordination action on graphene, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has already advanced and written regulations for the use of nanomaterials including graphene-based products. Likewise, the FDA is drafting regulations supporting the development of nanomaterials. <br><br> Calevia Inc., a private biotechnology company formed in partnership with ProScanRxPharma Inc. and Grafoid Inc, is now working to develop an innovative graphene-based photothermal therapeutic platform for various cancers. Calevia's goal is to develop a treatment that targets tumor cells at the molecular level offering better therapeutic efficacy and improved safety over traditional cancer treatments including surgery, radiation therapy and pharmacology. <br><br> Surgery and radiation therapy is indiscriminate when it comes to cancer cells and surrounding healthy cell tissue, which can leave patients with serious quality of life issues. In prostate cancer patients, for example, these issues may include incontinence and impotency in a large proportion of patients undergoing invasive procedures. What's needed in the cancer treatment space is a less-invasive, well-designed treatment that targets cancer cells only, leaving healthy cells intact thus reducing side effects and allowing patients to retain normal organ function. <br><br> The tumor-specific and photoactivable bio-conjugate we are developing targets prostate cancer and combines two well-characterized products: ProScan's prostate cancer antibody ligand (PSC1700) and Grafoid's functionalized and photoresponsive nanomaterial MesoGraf™Xide, a derivative of the universal standard and most pristine form of graphene, MesoGraf™. Our partner ProScan has developed and licensed to Calevia its humanized monoclonal antibody PSC1700 that is highly selective for PSMA, a protein that is over-expressed at the surface of prostate cancer cells and a recognized tumor marker. We're attaching this PSMA ligand to, MesoGraf™Xide, supplied by our second partner, Grafoid to create a targeted photoresponsive, injectable bio-conjugate. <br><br> Graphene has many commercially important properties, but the one that is of interest to Calevia is its photothermal property. MesoGraf™Xide is a graphene-based nano-material that can absorb near-infrared light (NIL) and transform it into heat instantly. Cells are sensitive to heat, so it doesn't have to be a very high temperature 10 to 12 degree above normal body temperature. At 42 degrees Celsius, cells become sluggish and above 46 degrees, irreversible cellular damage occurs and they die. Therefore, heat becomes the physical treatment that can kill the cancer cells with precision and efficacy when guided to the cancer area by a selective ligand. And that's what we're developing. A molecularly-targeted medical treatment that uses localized temperature elevation for the ablation of tumors.Continue reading >>>